MSCs cultured in this way express CD73, CD90 and CD105 (Supplementary Figure 1) (see online at and with proper stimulation are able to differentiate down the chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic pathways.
Experiments were performed using passages 7–10 and all cultures were maintained at 37°C in 5% CO studies, pieces of Tissue Mend matrix (2 × 2 × 0.8 mm) were placed in wells of 24-well plates and hydrated with α-MEM-complete culture medium.
Unlike mature dermis, this tissue matrix is comprised of relatively high concentrations of type III collagen (20–30%) in addition to type I collagen (70–80%; company communication ).
This composition of fibrillar collagens is similar to that of the mature heart .
One challenge of this approach is efficient delivery and long-term retention of the stem cells.Tuning the excitation wavelength to 890 nm, a 445/1 nm narrow band pass emission filter (Thin Film Imaging, Greenfield, MA, USA) was used to detect the SHG signal of collagen in the backscattered mode using a H7422P Ga As P photon counting photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka, Japan).For detection of Cell Tracker Red, a 580 nm long pass emission filter (Thin Film Imaging) was used.Although several synthetic and natural biomaterials have been developed for this purpose, the ideal formulation has yet to be identified., resulting in a significant decrease in the coefficient of alignment of fibers (0.12 ± 0.12) compared with the matrix alone (0.28 ± 0.07), and the MSCs were capable of migrating out of the matrix and into the host tissue.Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in the USA and worldwide [101,102].Ischemic heart disease is the result of an imbalance between myocardial blood flow and the metabolic demand of the myocardium that may eventually lead to infarction(s) [1,2].